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How Eight Covid-19 Vaccines Work


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How Eight Covid-19 Vaccines Work

By Jonathan Corum and Carl ZimmerJan. 5, 2021

 

Researchers are testing 64 coronavirus vaccines in clinical trials on humans. Here are explanations about how eight of the leading vaccines work.

Messenger RNA Vaccines

How the Pfizer-BioNTech Vaccine Works

The vaccine, known as Comirnaty, has been approved or authorized for emergency use in several countries, including the United States. Clinical trials showed the vaccine has an efficacy of 95 percent.

How Moderna’s Vaccine Works

The vaccine, known as mRNA-1273, has been approved in Canada and authorized for emergency use in the United States. Clinical trials showed the vaccine has an efficacy of 94.5 percent.

Adenovirus-Based Vaccines

 
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How the Oxford-AstraZeneca Vaccine Works

The vaccine, known as AZD1222 or Covishield, is authorized for emergency use in Britain, India and Argentina. Clinical trials showed the vaccine has an efficacy of approximately 70 percent, depending on dosage.

How the Johnson & Johnson Vaccine Works

The vaccine, called Ad26.COV2.S, is in Phase 3 trials and has not been authorized by any country. Trial results are expected in January.

Protein-Based Vaccines

How the Novavax Vaccine Works

The vaccine, known as NVX-CoV2373, is in Phase 3 trials. The vaccine has not been authorized by any country.

Inactivated Coronavirus Vaccines

How the Sinovac Vaccine Works

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The vaccine, known as CoronaVac, is approved in China and authorized for emergency use in Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates. Turkey announced the vaccine has an efficacy of 91 percent, and full results from Phase 3 trials are expected in January.

How the Sinopharm Vaccine Works

The vaccine, known as BBIBP-CorV, is authorized for limited use in China. Sinopharm says the vaccine has an efficacy rate of 79.34 percent.

 
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New · How Bharat Biotech’s Vaccine Works

The vaccine, known as Covaxin, is authorized for emergency use in India, despite a lack of published Phase 3 trial results. The vaccine’s efficacy is not yet known.

 

See the Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker for the status of other vaccines in development.

 

NY Times

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